英语语法+词法【四】

五、状语从句


1、形容词、副词修饰的成分

形容词:表语、定语

副词:(动词、形容词、副词、整个句子)—->都是状语成分

He cried sadly.

He looks especially sad.

He cried rather sadly.

Actually,he cries.

2、什么是状语

状语就是在一个句子中,用来修饰实义动词、形容词、副词或整个句子的成分。

状语在一句话当中,除了名词不能修饰,什么成分都可以修饰。

状语的成分:副词、介词短语、非谓语动词、从句

状语的位置:随便放

3、状语从句

状语从句的引导词是按照引导词本身的意思分类,一共分为九类

强调:状语从句中连接词不作任何成分,只需要写出从句,根据从句本身的意思添加引导词即可。例如:Where there is a will, there is a way.

(1)时间状语从句

1、时间状语从句的表示

1)引导词+句子

  • when=while=as(当while翻译成“当…的时候”的时候后面要跟进行时态,不管是过去还是现在,要点是进行时态)
  • before、after
  • since自从(只要几句话带自从,主句一定是完成时态!)
  • the moment=as soon as
  • by the time
  • until
  • not until
2、状语从句时态问题

当爱来临的时候,我要牵住她的手。

When love comes, I will hold her hands

在所有的状语从句中,如果主句的动作和从句的动作都尚未发生的话,主语用一般将来时,从句用一般现在时表示将来。主将从现。

当爱来临的时候,我没有牵住她的手。

When love came, I failed to hold her hands

体现了主句的动作和从句的动作都尚未发生才主将从现。否则是什么时态就写什么时态。

3、区别until和not until

I will wait here until you come.

I will not leave until you come.

区别在于主句的谓语动词是瞬间动词还是延续性动词。如果是延续性动词就用until,如果是瞬间动词就用not until

直到我长大,我才明白母亲的伟大。

I did not realize the greatness of mothers until I grew up.

4、when引导的时间状语从句省略的情况

When I was a kid,I enjoyed singing songs.

when引导的时间状语从句,如果主句和从句的主语一致,并且从句的谓语中有Be动词,此时从句的主语和Be动词可以同时省略。

(2)地点状语从句(在哪儿…)

1、地点状语从句的表示

1)介词短语

2)引导词+句子

  • where

这种树在潮湿的地方生长的很好。

The kind of trees grow well in moist places.

The kind of trees grow well where it is moist.

做地点状语的通常都是介词短语,很少是从句。

(3)原因状语从句(因为….)

1、原因状语从句的表示
  • 1)引导词。使用:引导词+句子
    • because
    • as
    • in that
    • since
    • seeing that
    • considering that
    • now that
    • given that

他们全部等效,可替换,常用前四个。

  • 2)连词。使用:连接两个句子,for只能放在两个句子中间。而because等引导的句子可在任意位置
    • for
  • 3)介词短语。使用:后跟n或者doing
    • because of
    • due to
    • owing to
    • thanks to
    • for the sake of
    • as a result of

因为他粗心他出了一场事故

He had a car accident because he was careless.

He had a car accident for he was careless.

He had a car accident because of his carelessness.

(4)目的状语从句(为了….)

1、目的状语从句的表示

1)+动词原形

  • to
  • in order to
  • so as to

2)引导词+句子

  • so that(通常放在句末不在句首)
  • in order that

为了看的更远,我们爬得更高。

We will ascend higher in order to overlook farther.

farther 具象的更远 further抽象的更远,例如两人的心更远了

(5)结果状语从句(如此…以至于…)

1、结果状语从句表示

  • so. .that…

  • such.. that….

  • 区别:so的后面跟形容词或者副词,而such后面跟名词。

  • so that也能作为结果状语从句,表示结果。导致了……

It feels so hot today that I wear my dress.

Today is such a hot day that I wear my dress.

so. .that…在作文中可以用在替换very上,实际上就是很….

(6)让步状语从句(虽然、尽管)

一个小技巧:明让步、暗转折,暗含的转折后内容就像but转折后的内容,是重点。无论是听力还是阅读都容易出题。

1、让步状语从句表示

1)连接词+句子

  • although
  • though
  • even though
  • even if

前四个都是尽管的意思

  • as

as引导的让步状语从句,从句的!表语!可以放在句首构成部分倒装。

As I seem ugly, I keep gentle.

Ugly as I seem, I keep gentle.

  • While(翻译成虽然、尽管,只能放在句首不能放在句中)

while的小总结:

  • while在句首,基本上就是“尽管”
  • while后+进行时态,当…时候。while后不是进行时态一定不是“当…时”
  • while当作“但是”基本上就是两句话中间

(7)方式状语从句(好像、似乎)

1、方式状语从句的表示

1)连接词+句子

  • as 按照…的方式
  • the way
  • as if/ though

2)介词短语+n/doing

  • by
  • through
  • by means of
  • in….way
  • in….manner

例:

She looks as if she were made of ice.(were是虚拟语气)

She talks with me as if she were my mother.(were是虚拟语气)

(8)条件状语从句(只要..)

1、条件状语从句表示

1)引导词+句子

  • if

  • once

  • as long as

  • suppose that

  • supposing that

  • unless =if not

  • provided that

  • so long as

只要有一丝希望,我也不会放弃。

If there seems a little hope,I will never give up.

(9)比较状语从句

  • as….as…
  • than

你看起来想我一样漂亮

You are as beautiful as I.

原句:You are as beautiful as I am beautiful.

你比我看起来更漂亮

You looks more beautiful than I.

原句:You looks more beautiful than I am beautiful.

它们一定不是me 而是I。因为写me结构破坏,主句和从句结构何在?

(10)注意!

常见的伴随是方式状语,但是它没有从句,通常是介词表示。

4、状语和状语从句的考点分析

(1)写作

作文中任何一句话都可以加一个状语把句子拉长。

I love you.

I love you for my whole life.

I love you although you do not love me.

你可以像猪一样生活,但是你永远不会像猪一样快乐。

One can live as if he were a pig conversely ,he can never be as delighted as a pig。

(2)长难句分析

能够快速的识别一句话当中的状语成分,并且把他们通顺的翻译出来。

如何识别状语?

一句话当中除了句子的主干和定语以外,其他部分都可以认为是状语。只要在句子中见到以下东西就是状语:

  • ①副词
  • ②比较状语从句
  • ③条件状语从句
  • ④结果状语从句
  • ⑤让步状语从句
  • ⑥原因状语从句
  • ⑦目的状语从句
  • ⑧方式状语从句
  • ⑨伴随状语

所以我们主要任务就是区分时间和地点什么时候是状语什么时候是定语。

只需要区分n+时间/地点。如果无法确定定语还是状语,定语优先原则。只有翻译成定语读起来很不通顺才翻译成状语。

例:I love the boy in zhejiang university.

虽然定、状都有其意思,但是定语是通顺的就按照定语来。

翻译的时候状语都放在最前面。

1、The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.

  • 主:The Greeks
  • 谓:assumed
  • 宾:that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.
  • 定:of language 、of thought、which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.
  • 状:in Europe、long before people realized how diverse languages could be.

希腊人认为语言的结构与思维过程有关,这种思维过程早在人们认识到语言的多样性之前就已经扎根于欧洲。

2、Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned orderly, systematic, and dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena.

  • 主:science
  • 系:is
  • 表:that branch branch是可数名词,这里没+the也不是负数,而它又不能单独拿出来使用,所以这里不是标语从句!表语是that branch
  • 定:
    • of intellectual enquiry
      • which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned orderly, systematic, and dispassioned manner that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena
        • that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena
  • 状: in the same reasoned orderly, systematic, and dispassioned manner
  • enquiry n.查询
  • seek to 寻求
  • intellectual n.知识分子 adj.智力的,脑力的
  • endeavor努力
  • reasoned 合理的
  • orderly有顺序地
  • systematic系统的
  • dispassioned不偏心的
  • manner 方式
  • natural 自然的

社会科学是知识研究的一个分支,这个分支(后置)试图以同样理性的有序的、系统的和冷静的方式来研究人类和人类的行为(状语翻译时提前),自然科学家也是用这种方式来研究自然现象的(定语较长,仍然后置)。

3、The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find.

  • 主:The behavioral sciences

  • 系:have been

  • 表:slow to change

  • 状:partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed

  • 两个状语and并列。

  • 状:partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find.

  • behavioral行为的

行为科学之所以发展缓慢,部分原因是一些解释能直接被观察到,部分原因是其他种类的解释很难被发现。

Traditionally, legal learning has been viewed in such situations as the special preserve of lawyers, rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person.

统上讲,在这些学院中,法律的学习被认为是律师所特有的活动,而不是受教育的人的知识储备的必要部分。

While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition, it is not so easy as in dealing with adults.

虽然在和年轻人接触的时候(状语前置)很容易忽略我们的行为对他们性情的影响,但是在和成年人相处的时候(状语前置),我们却很难忽略这种影响。

5、状语从句的一些特殊用法

(1)as专题

  • ①as+n:作为
  • ②v+…(一般是n)+as:此时as 的意思取决于前面动词的意思
  • ③as+句子:说明as在引导状语从句,as的意思可能是当…的时候、因为、虽然尽管、好像似乎。需要语境。(极少考作为定语,看前面as和which作的定语引导词区别。)

1、As a logical consequence of this development, separate journals have now appeared aimed mainly towards either professional or amateur readership.

  • separate 分离

  • journals 期刊

  • aim 瞄准

  • appear这里是系动词可看做be

  • as是用法①

由于这种发展的逻辑结果,现在出现了主要针对专业或业余读者的单独期刊。

2、As a result, the support for ambition as a healthy impulse, a quality to be admired and fixed in the mind of the young, is probably lower than it has ever been in the United States.

结果,将雄心壮志作为一种健康的冲动,一种在年轻人心目中受到钦佩和固定的品质的支持,可能比美国以往任何时候都低。

  • as是用法①

3、 I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic(苏格拉底) way about moral problems.

  • moral 道德

  • v+as,说明中间的n移动了。实际上这个n后移了,它是 the activity of thinking in Socratic(苏格拉底) way about moral problems.

  • 实际上: I shall define him as an individual who has elected the activity of thinking about moral problems in Socratic(苏格拉底) way as his primary duty and pleasure in life .

  • as是用法②

  • 我将他定义为以苏格拉底方式思考道德问题的活动作为他的主要职责和生活乐趣的个人。

4、Tylor defined culture as” that complex whole which includes belief, art, morals, law custom,and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.”

泰勒将文化定义为“一个复杂的整体,包括信仰,艺术,道德,法律习惯以及人类作为社会成员获得的任何其他能力和习惯。”

5、As is true of any developed society, in America a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions,and conventions underlies all social interrelationships.

  • signal信号
  • convention惯例
  • interrelationship相互关系
  • as是用法③

as做非限制性定语从句,修饰后面整个句子。

就像任何发达社会一样,在美国,一系列复杂的文化信号,假设和惯例构成了所有社会相互关系的基础。

6、Shortlists for job interviews, election ballot papers, lists of conference speakers and attendees:all tend to be drawn up alphabetically, and their recipients lose interest as they plough through them.

  • Shortlists 入围名单

  • ballot 选票

  • alphabetically按字母顺序

  • conference 会议

  • attendees参加者

  • recipients 收件人

  • plough 犁

  • as是用法③

求职面试的候选人名单、选举投票的决选人名革、会议发言人及参茄会议人的名单,往往都是按照字母顺序排列的,当人们费劲地往后翻看这些名单时,早就没有了兴趣。

7、With other audiences you mustn’t atempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman.

  • resent 怨恨
  • disparage 贬低
  • chairman主席
  • as是用法③

如果和其他听众一起,你千万不要试图插入幽默,因为他们会反感一个外人对他们的食堂或领导发表蔑视性的评论。(as翻译成“因为”)

8、New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance.

  • as well as 以及=and

  • elegance优雅

  • as是用法③

就像过去那样,将来新的思维方式和新的思维主题一定会出现,从而出现新的关于优雅的标准。

(2)than专题

  • ①not so much as = not even,意思是甚至不/没有
  • ②not so much A as B,与其说A倒不如说B
  • ③more A than B,与其说B不如说A
  • ④more than….
    • 后加名词:不仅仅是
    • 后加形容词或者副词:非常….
    • 后加数词:多余

He cannot so much as spell a word.

He is not so much a teacher as a poet.

He is more a poet than a teacher.

六、句子所有成分大总结


(1)大总结

主:名词、代词、非谓语动词、从句

谓:实义动词、系动词

宾:名词、代词、非谓语动词、从句

表:名词、代词、非谓语动词、从句、形容词、介词短语。

同位语:名词、代词、非谓语动词、从句

定语:名词、代词、非谓语动词、从句、形容词、介词短语

状语:副词、介词短语、非谓语动词、从句

因为主语和宾语可以通过被动互换位置,所以成分一致。

补语很少见,而且补语就可以认为是定语补充宾语。

从句和非谓语动词除了谓语什么都能充当。且从句和非谓语动词可以互相替代

主语、宾语、同位语成分一致。

介词短语可充当表语、定语、状语。在系动词后表语、在n后定语、在实义动词后状语

副词只能做状语

表语和定语成分一致,定语修饰名词,表语说明主语的状态实际上就是修饰主语的,而主语一定是名词(名词、代词一定代指名词、动名词、名词性从句)

My mother is an elegant lady.(形容词作定语)

=My mother is a lady of elegance.(名词做定语)

=My mother is a lady as elegant as a lily.(介词短语作定语)

=My mother is a lady looking as elegant as a lily.(非谓语动词作定语)系动词没有被动,所以尽管是被看起来但是转为非谓语动词是looking

=My mother is a lady who looks as elegant as a lily.(从句作定语)

启示:写作不要只会用形容词作定语

She killed her husband with a sharp knife.(介词短语作状语)

=She,applying a sharp knife,killed her husband.(非谓语动词作状语)

=When She applied a sharp knife,she killed her husband.(从句作状语)

=形容词作状语不好概况这里不再赘述。

启示:写作不要只会用副词作状语

That I met you is my honor.(从句作主语)

=Meeting you is my honor.(非谓语动词作主语)

=……不再赘述

My dream is passing/to pass the examination of postgraduates.(非谓语动词作表语)

=My dream is that I pass the examination of postgraduates.(从句作表语)

=……..不再赘述

英语长难句的模样:(状语 (as做定语前置特殊)), (定语|同位语|状语) (定语|同位语|状语)

English is vital.

加同位语->English,a universal language through out the world, is vital.

加状语->English,a universal language through out the world, is vital although it is hard to recite these worlds.

I will recommend you a tourist attraction

I,an undergraduate in this university,will recommend you a tourist attraction which keeps popular with Chinese travelers.

(2)练习

教师节就要来了,我借这次机会向给了我帮助的老师表达真心的感谢。

Teacher’Day approaching,I express my sincere appreciation to teachers who have given me assistance by the chance.

生命很短暂这个事实已经被人们广泛的接受了。

The truth that life becomes so short has been accepted by the mass.

上课不集中精力而又希望通过考试的学生往往会发现结果不会令人满意。

Students who failed to concentrate in class but wish to pass examination perceive that the consequence proves less impressive.

为了实现我的梦想,我一直在思考该不该和男朋友分手。

I,in order to realize my dream ,am considering whether I should depart with my boy friend.

有学校的地方,司机应该缓行。

Where there is/exists a school,drivers should go slowly.

-----------------------本文结束 感谢阅读-----------------------
坚持原创技术分享,您的支持将鼓励我继续创作!恰饭^.^~