英语语法+词法【五】

七、特殊结构


1、强调句

(1)什么是强调句

It is ….that/(who)….

that既能指物也能指人, who只能指人。

强调句和原句时态一致,但是只有两种时态,is和was 含过去就was否则就is!

强调句型就像一个框架,它在句子中不作任何成分,强调谁就把谁框到句首,其它部分都不变!所以,判断写的强调句是否正确:看去掉强调句框架的句子是否正确。

强调句型可以强调句子中任何成分,唯一不能强调谓语!!

区分主语从句和强调句型:去掉it…that…看句子是否正确完整。

我昨天在街上遇到了我的旧情人

I met my old flame in the street yesterday.

就是我昨天在街上遇到了我的旧情人

It was I that met my old flame in the street yesterday.

就是昨天我在街上遇到了我的旧情人.

It was yesterday that I met my old flame in the street.

(2)考点分析

1、写作

写作中所有的句子都能写成强调句型。

1、有很多的原因解释这种现象

There remain abundant elements to account for the issue.

It is abundant elements that there remain to account for the issue.

It is to account for the issue that there remain abundant elements.

2、你至今仍然没有意识到就是因为你交友不慎,你才没有考上心目中理想的大学

So far , you have never realized that because you had unfavorable friends ,you failed to go to your dreamful university.

So far, you have never realized that It was because you had unfavorable friends that you failed to go to your dreamful university.

2、长难句分析

But it is the arrival of new satellite channels-funded partly by advertising and partly by viewers subscriptions-that will bring about the biggest changes in the long term.

  • subscription订阅
  • advertise广告
  • 两个破折号之间是插入语funded partly by advertising and partly by viewers subscriptions
    • 插入语:可认为是定语、同位语、状语。
  • in the long term根据原则先看看翻译成定语合不合适,不合适再换成状语。这里合适。

但是,新的卫星频道的到来(部分由广告和部分由订阅者提供资金)将在长期内带来最大的变化。

Perhaps it is humankind’s long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought that makes the idea of force the waters to do our bidding so fascinating.

  • flood 洪水

  • drought 干旱

  • bidding 投标

  • do one‘s bidding 服从

也许是人类长期遭受洪水和干旱的苦难使强迫水服从于我们的想法变得如此迷人。

2、倒装句

(1)什么是倒装

Do you love me ?

Have you ever been Europe?

Is your father a teacher?

一般疑问句就是倒装。倒装就是把一句话写成一般疑问句的形式,也就是给一句话加个助动词或把be动词放在句首。

  • ①否定意义的词放在句首用倒装
  • ②so,nor/ neither位于句首,表明承前句子的肯定或否定时用倒装。so表示肯定,nor/ neither表示否定
  • ③含有so…that.结构的句子将so引导的部分置于句首时用倒装
  • ④only引出的状语位于句首时用倒装。注意是状语!
  • ⑤as引导让步状语从句,从句的表语可以放在句首构成部分倒装(前面已经讲过了,就是表语放在句首)
  • ⑥省略if的虚拟语气用倒装

注意,前面说法表示句子处于的状态,后面倒装意味着把剩下的句子倒装;也就是给一句话加个助动词或把be动词放在句首。

用法①

我几乎不会说日语

I can hardly speak Japanese.

Hardly can I speak Japanese.

can hardly才是否定词

Playing phones not only influences the physical and mental health of youngsters but also waste their precious time.

Not only does Playing phones influences the physical and mental health of youngsters but also waste their precious time.

but also 不是否定词,且这是并列的两个句子,第一个句子倒装不影响第二个句子。

在任何情况下我们都不能忽略保护环境的重要性

Under no circumstances can we keep a blind eye to the issue of environmental protection.

Under no circumstances已经是否定词了

用法②

  • I can cook . So can I cook.

  • I can not cook. Nor can I cook.

  • I can not dance well. My daughter can not dance either.

    I can not dance well,neither/ nor can my daughter.

用法③

  • He was so excited that he cannot help laughing at midnight

    【倒装为】 So excited was he that he cannot help laughing at midnight.

  • He is having class so forcefully that everyone present was convinced.
    【倒装为】 So forcefully is he having class that everyone present was convinced.

用法④

  • His girlfriend called his name only once
    【倒装为】 Only once did his girlfriend call his name.

  • My dearest mother always lives only in my deep heart
    【倒装为】 Only in my deep heart does my dearest mother always live.

  • You will call your mother only when you need living expenses.

    【倒装为】 Only when you need living expenses will you call your mother.

用法⑤

as引导的让步状语从句,从句的!表语!可以放在句首构成部分倒装。

As I seem ugly, I keep gentle.

Ugly as I seem, I keep gentle.

(2)倒装的考点分析

1、写作

倒装满分句型。

文化交流不但能促进我们国家经济的发展,而且还能开阔个人的眼界。

Not only can cultural exchange promote economic advance but also makes our eyesight broad .

我累得浑身都没有劲了。

So exhausted am I that I have no energy through out.

只有在自己的家里,我才感到安全和放松。

Only at home,do I feel relaxed.

2长难句分析

识别倒装句、还原倒装在翻译。

Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyed-and perhaps never before has it served so much to connect different peoples and nations as is the recent events in Europe.

  • serve服务
  • means 手段

电视是创造和传达这些情感的手段之一,而且与欧洲最近发生的事件一样,它在连接不同民族和国家之间的作用也许从来没有像现在这样重要。

Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution.

只是逐渐注意到该机构的副产品,而且直到后来才逐渐将此效果视为机构行为的指导因素。

For example, they do not compensate for gross social inequality, and thus do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been had he grown up under more favorable circumstances.

  • compensate 补偿
  • gross 重大的
  • thus 从而
  • inequality 不平等
  • underprivileged 弱势群体
  • 省略了if

例如,他们并不能弥补严重的社会不平等,因此也无法说明如果贫困的年轻人在更有利的条件下长大,他可能会有多大的能力。

3、虚拟语气

(1)什么是虚拟语气

虚拟语气表示与事实相反或者表示委婉。

用法①(一般用法):if引导的条件状语从句。即if引导的条件状语从句都可以使用虚拟语气表达。

(2)虚拟语气用法①(一般用法)

如果你是我眼中的一滴泪,我就永远不会哭泣。

普通条件句:If you are a tear in my eyes ,I will never shed it.

虚拟语气:If you were a tear in my eyes ,I would never shed it.

普通条件句:If I was a dog. I could sleep with you .

虚拟语气:If I had been a dog. I could have slept with you .(情态动词没有过去式,could不变

如何把普通条件状语句变虚拟语气?,只需要把已经写好的句子的时态变成过去式就可以了。并且在虚拟语气中be 动词的过去式只有were,could=would=might=should

如果下辈子我还记得你,我们死都要在一起。

If remembered you in my next life ,we would never seperate with each other.

如果你当初听我的话,你就应该通过这次考试了。

If you had obeyed my instruction at the outset,you could have passed the examination.

省略if的倒装:if去掉,+倒装(变一般疑问句)

If Had you obeyed my instruction at the outset,you could have passed the examination.

(3)普通用法考点分析

1、作文

满分句型

If every citizen raised a pet in his family ,the environment would be destroyed.

2、长难句分析

虚拟语气无长难句分析,翻译一致

(4)虚拟语气用法②(特殊用法):

  • 以下情况从句用” should+v原形”表示虚拟,并且 should可以省略。

    以防:incase、lest、for fear that

    命(令):order、direct、command

    贱(建议):advise、suggest、propose

    要求:ask、request、demand、require

    用虚拟

    *是必要的:it is necessary/important that *

只要见到这批单词,从句都用should+v原形表示虚拟,自己写should就不要省了。

Incase that you should develop fatal infections ,you had better stay at home.

老师要求我们交研究报告

The teacher asks that we should hand in our research report.

  • 以下情况从句用一般过去时表示虚拟(很少)

    常见的有两个:would rather(宁愿)和 It is high time that(是…的时候了)

It is high time that the dependence of kids were cultivated by their citizens.

  • 以下情况要区别对待:就是把它本来的时态写成过去式(很少)

    常见的词有:wish(和事实相反的希望)、if only(如果…该多好)、 but for(要不是..)、or/ otherwise(否则)、as if/as though(好像似乎)等

    If only I were a child If only I had been a child.

(5)特殊用法考点分析

1、写作

对于普通市民来说,保护小区环境,不乱丢垃圾是非常必要的。

It is necessary that the community environment should be protected and rubbish should be never dumped for the common.

2、长难句分析

虚拟语气无长难句分析,翻译一致

4、情态动词

情态动词是表达说话人主观态度的词汇,情态动词后+动词原形。情态动词就相当于助动词。

(1)一般用法

  • must必须
  • should应该
  • will、would:委婉的请求;时态上would是will的过去式,但是在做情态动词的时候不用过于区分都能用,都表示委婉
    • Will you marry me?
  • can、could :意思一样,都是能够,时态上would是will的过去式,但是在做情态动词的时候不用过于区分都能用,只不过could更委婉
  • may、might:意思一样,都是 可能,时态上would是will的过去式,但是在做情态动词的时候不用过于区分都能用,只不过might更委婉

(2)特殊用法

  • 情态动词表示现在和将来的推测:情态动词后+动词原形

    I must be wealthy in future.

  • 情态动词表示对过去的的推测

    He must have been self-biased in his university.

    must have done :一定做过某事;must的是can not 而不是must not ,must not 是禁止做….

    You need not have show your love in this way.

    *need not have done:本没必要做某事但是做了 *

    I could have become a prominent poet.

    could have done :本能够做某事但没有做表示遗憾

    We should got married if there exists a chance.

    should have done:本能够做某事但没有做但是没有遗憾

5、插入语

它是指插在句子中的词语或句子,其位置比较灵活,通常用逗号、破折号隔开,与句子的其他部分之间没有语法上的关系。其作用是对一句话的附加解释、说明或总结,有时表示说话人的态度和看法,有时起强调作用,有时是为了引起对方的注意,还可以起转移话题或说明原因的作用,也可以承上启下,使语句间的衔接更为紧密。

通常是定语、状语、同位语,放在句子的主谓之间。用逗号或破折号隔开

(1)常用插入语

副词作插入语,常见的有:

(2)考点分析

翻译时小括号隔开。

八、句子的“态”小结


1、时态

时态就是时间+状态。一共4*4=16种。重点八种。

时间:过去 现在 将来 过去将来

状态:一般 进行 完成 完成进行

时态v用法含义
一般过去时v的过去式完全发生在过去,现在不这样了
一般现在时v原型、v第三人称单数①现在一般都这样,经常性,习惯性发生②永恒的真理
一般将来时will+v原型或者am/is/are going to+v原型;shall+v原型也可以(只能用在第一人称后,很少出现)现在的将来要发生的事
过去将来时would+v原型或者was/were going to+v原型通常会搭配过去的环境才使用;站在过去看将来
过去、现在、(将来)进行时be+doing 就是be动词的时态变
现在完成时have/has done(v的过去分词)做完不做完不重要,重要的是有汇报总结做的结果的语义;现在的之前发生的事
过去完成时had+done(v的过去分词)过去和过去完成,一个在前一个在后,具有说明发生顺序的作用

2、情态

情态动词是表达说话人主观态度的词汇,情态动词后+动词原形。情态动词就相当于助动词。

(1)一般用法

  • must必须
  • should应该
  • will、would:委婉的请求;时态上would是will的过去式,但是在做情态动词的时候不用过于区分都能用,都表示委婉
    • Will you marry me?
  • can、could :意思一样,都是能够,时态上would是will的过去式,但是在做情态动词的时候不用过于区分都能用,只不过could更委婉
  • may、might:意思一样,都是 可能,时态上would是will的过去式,但是在做情态动词的时候不用过于区分都能用,只不过might更委婉

(2)特殊用法

  • 情态动词表示现在和将来的推测:情态动词后+动词原形

    I must be wealthy in future.

  • 情态动词表示对过去的的推测

    He must have been self-biased in his university.

    must have done :一定做过某事;must的是can not 而不是must not ,must not 是禁止做….

    You need not have show your love in this way.

    *need not have done:本没必要做某事但是做了 *

    I could have become a prominent poet.

    could have done :本能够做某事但没有做表示遗憾

    We should got married if there exists a chance.

    should have done:本能够做某事但没有做但是没有遗憾

3、语态(主动和被动,只需要区分主动即可,其他常用都是主动)

be done

be需要区分时态

难写的一个:现在进行的被动

他现在正在被打

He is being to beaten .

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