英语语法+词法【八】

一、逗号的使用


转自:https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/55327367

注:英文没有顿号(、),中文用顿号处,英文用逗号

逗号在句中表示一般性停顿。举例:When he came, I was busy cleaning my room.

你说完came后停顿了下,那么,此句写出来时,came后要加逗号。除了表示停顿,语法上,根据句子结构,即使在没有停顿的地方,也要用逗号。如下:

1. 并列句中,连词(and, but, or, for, so, nor, yet)前用逗号

He asked the question in a loud voice, but no one answered.

We were tied, and we decided to have a rest.

Come early, or you will miss the show.

It must have rain last night, for the ground is wet.

He is an eccentric, yet you can’t help liking him.

但,如果2个或3个并列从句很简短,意思又紧密相连,它们之间也可不用连词,只用逗号。比如:A memoir is history,it is based on evidence.——E.M.Forster。这种用法是特殊情况,比较少见,通常情况下,逗号不能连接前后完成的句子,必须要有连词。举例如下

The teacher came in, we were talking.错误

When the teacher came in, we were talking. 正确

“the teacher came in”和“we were talking”都是主谓宾完整的句子,必须加连词,比如when

2. 状语从句或短语(包括介词短语和分词短语)放在句首(主语前),或位于句子中间时,后面应用逗号。

When the bell rang, the teacher dismissed the class.(对比The teacher dismissed the class when the bell rang.)

In the ancient palace, they saw the throne where emperors used to sit.

Born and brought up in the Sourth, she is not used to eating wheat.

The audience, interested in the topic, asked the speaker many questions.

如果主语前的从句或短语很短,其后可省略逗号,举例如下:

On Friday I have an exam. Friday后省略了逗号

On hearing the big noise I knew something terrible happened.

In one corner of the room they found the injured cat.

如果状语从句位于主句后,一般省去逗号。举例如下:

The teacher dismissed the class when the bell rang.

You will be unable to finish the work in time if you don’t start at once.

3. 非限定性定语从句或短语,必须用逗号隔开。

He had to leave his home town, where he had lived ever since he was born.

Wang Ling, who is the best singer of the class, will teach us.

My neighbors, John and Kim Sullivan, are both professors at the college.

An old lady, nodding and smilling, invited us in.

限定性定语从句或短语,不用逗号隔开,举例如下。

The young man (who is) taking with the foreign reporter is the inventor of the machine.

This is the house where the famous poet was born.

4. 除了并列句,并列成分,即在句中起同样作用的一系列词或短语(它们共同为一个主体服务),用逗号分析。

The little girl likes to sing, to dance, and to act.

She buys bread, buffer, vegetables, and many other things.

The beautiful, old house had a huge living room.

The guests included the president, the first lady, the vice president and the minister of defence.(四个人都是Guest之列)

He spent the weekend researching his topic, writing his essay and proofreading his final draft. (逗号之后的部分都是在描写he在周末的状态)

记得把逗号加入并列连接词前的最后两个成分。否则,句子的含义可能不清楚。举例如下:

5. 插入语的前后用逗号分开

也可理解为:在完整的句子中插入任何信息,都要使用逗号。

The film was, in my opinion, a waste of two hours.

Your work, I am sorry to say, is not satisfactory.

To call a spade a spade, the experiment was a failure.

They have many courses: Chinese, English, Mathematics, History, to name just a few.

Students, therefore, should be allowed to use cell phones in class.

6. 逗号常用以下例句斜体部分前后

Yes, I think so.

No, it is not very good.

She is the new teacher, isn’t she?

He said, “The Summer Palace is like a fairyland.”

“The Summer Palace is like a fairyland,” He said.

“The Summer Palace,” he said, “ is like a fairyland.”

写日期时,如果次序是“月—日—年”,在日和年之间加逗号。如果次序是“日-月-年”,则不加逗号。

The delegation will arrive on October 5th, 2000.

She was born on 24th May 1979.

一些常用的总结


0、杂集

  • despite是介词后面+doing

  • yet 在现在完成时中有已经的意思,在并列句中也有转折的意思

  • for作为介词为了…,作为连词连接两个句子,因为

  • 形式主语It的句子,原理上不一定是to do ,只是应用上几乎都是to do

  • 有时to作介词,to doing

1、省略

(1)并列句

主语相同省主语,主谓相同省主谓,主谓宾相同省主谓宾。总之,两个句子并列,什么相同就能够省什么。(并列句特权,其他省略不是)

(2)名词性从句的宾语从句

并且所有的名词性从句中,that只能在宾语从句中省略。但是在正式文体中不能省掉,而考研中就是正式文体。自己写不要省略!!

(3)定语从句

that在引导定语从句的时候,如果在从句中充当的是宾语,that可以省略。注意是从句中充当宾语

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