英语语法+词法【二】

三、名词性从句


1、名词能够充当的成分

  • 名词能够充当主语
    • The movies looks terrific.
  • 名词能够充当宾语
    • I admire his mother.
  • 名词能够充当表语
    • Gump is a man.
  • 名词能够充当同位语
    • I enjoy the part,the beginning.

同位语:用来解释名词的成分,所以他可以修饰主语、宾语、表语。名词、代词、非(谓语动词)做同位语都有逗号,只有从句做同位语没有逗号。

同位语成分:

  • 1、名词

  • 2、代词

  • 3、非谓语动词I enjoy the sports,running

  • 4、从句

写作中同位语加分。

例如:My mother,a typical housewife,playing Mahjong ,a Chinese entertainment.

主语写作时不要都使用同位语,这里只是演示同位语的位置可以在主语、宾语

只要在作文中见到名词,都可以有意识的在它的后面加一个同位语,对该名词进行补充说明.

Persistence ,a active mentality,plays a critical role in the glories of all children and aduls

坚持,一种积极的心态,在所有的孩子和成年人的成功中扮演重要角色.

2、什么是名词性从句

  • 主语从句:The moviesWhat i saw looks terrific.
  • 宾语从句:I admire his motherwhat she said.
  • 表语从句:Gump is a man who we should learn from.
  • 同位语从句:I enjoy the part that a bird is flying in the sky,the beginning .

名词在句子中能够充当的成分,从句都能充当,这就是名词性从句

3、名词性从句的引导词

从句=引导词+句子,所以一个句子想变成从句很简单,但是需要选对引导词

  • That he has got divorced is my fault. 它已经离婚了是我的错误

  • Whether he has got divorced is obvious.他是否已经离婚了是显而易见的

  • Who he will marry is a secret. 他要和谁结婚是一个秘密

名词性从句的引导词是按照从句的类型分的类,一共把引导词分成三类

  • 1、that:当从句是陈述句时。并且that在从句中不充当任何成分也没有任何意思
  • 2、Whether:当从句是一般疑问句时(但是注意改成从句需要变成陈述句)。并且whether也不充当任何成分,意思是是否
  • 3、所有的特殊疑问词:当从句是特殊疑问句时。(注意改成从句需要变成陈述句)

英语中所有的从句一定是陈述句的形式!!也就是引导词+主语+谓语的形式

练习:

①我正在思考,外星人存在吗。

I am wondering whether alien is exist.

②女人总是对的是一个常识

That women tend to be right remains common knowledge.

③我的意思是孝敬父母是中华民族传统美德

My meaning seems that supporting the elderly remains a Chinese conventional virtue.(美德可数!)

④有一天你会发现,事业、亲情、友情

Someday,one will perceive that career,kinship and friendship prove more indispensable than romance.

三个不可数名词当做主语,但是谓语依然是复数不是单数,要看全部的主语是不是单数

one day是已经发生过某件事情的某一天,someday 如果一件事情没有发生的某一天

不特指的“你”,翻译成one

⑤重点是你什么时候有钱

The point seems when wealth will become available for you.

4、写作中的使用

(1)主语从句

主语从句满分句型:把主语从句放到句末,用it作为形式主语

  • it….that…..(注意和最后学习的强调句型区分)

  • 显而易见的是、众所周知的是:

    • It is apparent that…
    • It looks beyond dispute that
    • It has been widely accepted that….
    • It is universally acknowledged that…
  • It keeps my argument that….=I think that….

主语从句的满分句型可以写在作文中任何一句话的前面,用来拉长句子。

练习:

显而易见,关于勤奋这个话题已经引起广泛关注了

It looks beyond dispute that issue about diligence has been brought into the limelight.

(2)同位语从句

练习:

他已经找到了一个女朋友,这件事情使他的家人很开心。

The matter that he managed to find a girlfriend makes his superiors rejoiced.

The matter makes his superiors rejoiced that he managed to find a girlfriend.

同位语从句既可以放在它所解释的名词后,也可以放到整句话的后面

练习:

没有什么能够掩盖他正在变老这个事实。

Nothing can hide the truth that he is getting old.

河南人都是骗子这种想法是不正确的

The outlook proves wrong that private individuals in Henan seem all deceivers.

温室里的花朵不能经受风雨这个事实表明,我们不应该溺爱孩子。

The evidence that flowers in the greenhouse fail to undergo storms indicates that kids should not be spoiled by their senior citizens.

5、长难句分析

目的:能够识别各个名词性从句并且把它们通顺的翻译出来。

(1)如何识别主语从句

只要见到有引导词放在句首,并且从句后没有被逗号隔开,就一定是主语从句。主语从句从句首后开始,到主句的谓语动词(前面没有引导词的谓语动词)结束。除此以外,见到it….that也通常都是主语从句,主语是that到最后it是形式主语。

练习:

Whether the Government should increase the financing of pure science at the expense of technology or vice versa often depends on the issue of which is seen as the driving force.

  • 主语:Whether the Government should increase the financing of pure science at the expense of technology or vice versa
    • 由Whether….or….并列的两个从句共同充当主语
  • 谓语:depends on
  • 宾语: the issue
  • 修饰 the issue的定语of which is seen as the driving force
  • vice versa超纲词,难点,不知道何成分,不能使用之前的找对应成分。考使用or的选择关系,推测另一半的意思
  • 政府是否应该以牺牲技术为代价增加对纯科学的资助,反之亦然,通常取决于谁被视为推动力的问题。

分析长难句就是以最快的速度找到一句话的主谓宾定状补同成分圈起来,然后用中国人的习惯分部分翻译出来使它通顺

练习:

How well the predictions will be validated by later performance depends upon the amount reliability, and appropriateness of the information used and on the skill and wisdom with which it is interpreted.

  • 主语:How well the predictions will be validated by later performance
  • 谓语:depends upon
  • 宾语:the amount reliability, and appropriateness
  • 定语:of the information used
  • 并列:on the skill and wisdom with which it is interpreted.(n+n+定语)分析and前,得到省略了谓语depends

以后的行为将会在多准确上证明这些预言取决于所使用的的信息的数量可靠性和适合性并且还取决于解释这个信息的技巧和智慧

It is generally agreed that a person of high intelligence is one who can grasp ideas readily,make distinctions, reason logically, and make use of verbal and mathematical symbols in solving problems.

  • 主语:that a person of high intelligence is one who can grasp ideas readily,make distinctions, reason logically, and make use of verbal and mathematical symbols in solving problems.
  • 谓语:is agreed
    • is是助动词,帮助agreed构成句子
  • 主谓结构。

人们普遍认为,一个高智商的人应该能够容易地掌握思想,做出区分,逻辑推理并利用语言和数学符号来解决问题。

For example, it has long been known that total sleep deprivation is 100 percent fatal to rats,yet, upon examination of the dead bodies, the animals look completely normal.

  • 主语:that total sleep deprivation is 100 percent fatal to rats,yet, upon examination of the dead bodies, the animals look completely normal.
  • 谓语:has long been known

例如,很早以前就知道剥夺全部睡眠对大鼠是100%致命的,但是,检查尸体后,这些动物看起来完全正常。

Furthermore, it is obvious that the strength of a country’s economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture and industry, and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all kinds.

  • 主语: that the strength of a country’s economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture and industry, and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all kinds.
    • 主:that the strength of a country’s economy
    • 谓:is directly bound up
    • 宾语:with the efficiency of its agriculture and industry, and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists
      • 定语:of its agriculture
    • 并列:that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists
  • 系:is
  • 表:obvious
  • bind-bound 绑
  • in turn = conversely 相反的
  • rests upon 依靠

此外,很明显,一个国家的经济实力与农业和工业的效率直接相关,而这又取决于各种科学家和技术人员的努力。

(2)如何识别宾语从句

只要实意动词(动宾形式)或动词短语后面(介宾形式)有引导词就暂定为宾语从句,偶尔若是主谓宾宾,那就是是第二个宾语是宾语从句

练习:

She said(that)she would marry an old rich man.

这个句子告诉我们,宾语从句中的that可以省略,并且所有的名词性从句中,that只能在宾语从句中省略。但是在正式文体中不能省掉,而考研中就是正式文体。自己写不要省略!!

I wonder if I can pass the National Postgraduate Entrance Examination smoothly.

这个句子告诉我们,宾语从句中“是否”可以写成if,但是if只能引导宾语从句,而 whether可以引导所有的名词性从句,建议作文中永远写成 whether,遗忘if吧。

This alone demonstrates that the television business is not an easy world to survive in. A fact underlined by statistics shows that out of eighty European television networks no less than 50% took a loss in 1989.

  • take a lose 亏本
  • underlined v.强调 n.下划线
  • out of 在这里翻译成在…只中!根据语境翻译

仅此一项就表明电视业务不是一个容易生存的世界。统计数据强调的事实表明,在1989年,欧洲80个电视网络中,不少于50%亏损。

He believes that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations.

  • 主语:He
  • 谓语:believe
  • 宾语:that this very difficulty may have had the compensating advantage of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence, and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations.
    • 主:this very difficulty
    • 谓: have had
    • 宾语:advantage
    • 定语:of forcing him to think long and intently about every sentence
      • 并列定语:and thus enabling him to detect errors in reasoning and in his own observations.
  • compensate 补偿–》compensating 补偿性的(一个句子中不能有两个谓语,这里作为不是动词,作为补偿性的
  • intently 专心地、force to 强迫、enable 使能、detect 检测、observation 观察 reason v.推理n.原因
  • in doing sth. 翻译成在…的过程中。

他认为,这种困难可能具一种可以迫使他长时间认真地思考每个句子,从而使他能够发现推理和自己的观察中的错误的补偿优势。

You have all heard it repeated that men of science work by means of induction(归纳法)and deduction(演绎法 ) that by the help of these operations, they, in a sort of sense, manage to extract from Nature certain natural laws, and that out of these, by some special skill of their own, they build up their theories.

  • 主:You
  • 谓:have heard
  • 宾:it
  • 宾补:repeated
  • 三个并列宾语从句,指的是it,他们是形式宾语,很少见,有难度
  • extract 提取、certain 某些
  • in a sort of 在某种程度上

你们都已经重复听到过这些事情了吧,科学家通过归纳法和演绎法工作,通过这些操作,他们在某种意义上设法从自然界中提取某些自然定律,并从这些自然定律中,通过他们自己的特殊技能,他们建立了自己的理论。

(3)如何识别表语从句

只要系动词后面有引导词就是表语从句

练习:

A report consistently brought back by visitors to the Us is how friendly, courteous and helpful most Americans were to them.

  • courteous 有礼貌的

参观者不断带回的一份报告显示,大多数美国人对他们有多么友好,礼貌和乐于助人。

Galileo’s greatest glory was that in 1609 he was the first person to turn the newly invented telescope on the heavens to prove that the planets revolve around the sun rather than around the earth.

  • invented 发明的
  • prove 证明
  • revolve 围绕

伽利略最大的成就在于,他在1609年率先将新发明的望远镜转向天空,以证明行星绕着太阳而不是绕地球旋转。

Women are much too preoccupied by family.Once the marriage begins to disintegrate they are lost. That is where their unhappiness spring from and that is why most divorced mothers regard themselves as victims.

  • preoccupied 全神贯注
  • disintegrate 瓦解
  • victims 受害人
  • spring from sth 起源于,来自于

妇女过于全神贯注于家庭,一旦婚姻开始瓦解,她们就会迷失方向。 这就是他们不快乐的根源,这就是为什么大多数离婚的母亲都把自己当作受害者。

(4)如何识别同位语从句

只要名词后面有引导词就暂定为同位语从句(更可能是定语从句)

练习:

Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf developed the idea that the structure of language determines the structure of habitual thought in a society.

  • habitual 习惯性的

对语言和思想的关系很感兴趣,Whorf提出了一种思想,即语言的结构决定了社会中习惯性思维的结构。

A century ago, Freud formulated his revolutionary theory that dreams were the disguised shadows of our unconscious desires and fears.

  • formulate 制定
  • unconscious 无意识

一个世纪以前,弗洛伊德提出了他的革命性理论,即梦想是我们潜意识里的欲望和恐惧的隐蔽阴影。

But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.

  • profoundly 深刻地
  • ordinary 普通的
  • convention 惯例
  • 主语:the idea
  • 谓语:rests on
  • reporter:现场报道的那些记者。interviewer:采访的记者,面试官。journalist 写期刊的记者。
  • rest on=depend on 取决于、基于
  • 宾语:an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.

但是,新闻工作者必须比普通公民更深刻地理解法律的思想是基于对新闻媒体既定惯例和特殊责任的理解。

Evidence came up that specific speech sounds are recognized by babies as young as 6 months old.

  • specific 具体的、特定的

  • evidence 证据

  • come up 上来 出现

  • 注意!“证据出现了”不缺宾语,是主谓结构。这里是一个位置放到后面的同位语从句。

6个月大的婴儿能够识别特定的声音这种证据已经出现了。

Concerns were raised that witnesses might be encouraged to exaggerate their stories in court to ensure guilty verdicts.

  • witnesses 证人

  • exaggerate 夸大

  • verdicts 判决

  • 这句和上一句一样也是不缺宾语。

为了保证有罪的判决,证人可能在法庭上夸大他们的故事这种担心已经出现了。

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