英语语法+词法【三】

四、定语从句


1、什么是定语?

定语是修饰名词的成分。只要听到…的+n。…的就是修饰这个名词的定语成分。

2、定语的成分

1、形容词作定语

那只善良的夜莺死了

The innocent nightingale died.

那只善良和勇敢的夜莺死了

The nightingale brave and innocent died.

定语较长放后面

2、名词(短语)作定语

夜莺的歌声能够使这朵玫瑰花开放

The singing of the nightingale can make the rose bloom.

3、介词短语作定语

窗外的夜莺听到了年轻人的感叹

The nightingale out of the window heard the sighs of the youngster.

4、非谓语动词作定语

那只唱歌的夜莺最后死的很悲惨

The singing nightingale lost his life.

主动ing被动ed

5、从句作定语

夜莺用生命换来的玫瑰花被扔掉了

6、形容词性物主代词作定语(实际上就是形容词作定语)

3、定语的位置

前小后大:当一个单词修饰名词的时候,通常放在名词前;当多个单词修饰名词的时候通常放在名词后。

练习:

这是一个关于夜莺和玫瑰的故事

This is a story about a nightingale and a rose

可数名词不能单独使用,+a或者复数,或者特指时的the。由于这里是标题意思就是一个夜莺和一个玫瑰的故事,所以用a。

  • 介词短语作定语:about a nightingale and a rose

那个懂爱的年轻人离开了王子的舞会

The youngster grasping romance left the party of the prince.

  • 非谓语动词作定语:grasping romance
  • 名词作定语:the prince

被拒绝的那个男生看起来很可怜

The boy rejected looks pitiful.

  • 非谓语动词作定语:rejected

  • 不成文规定:当过去分词修饰名词的时候,即使只有一个单词,也通常放在名词后。可以在前,但是一般不这样做

我有一些重要的事情告诉你

I have something important to tell you.

不成文规定:当形容词修饰不定代词的时候及时只有一个单词也通常放在名词后。可以在前,但是一般不这样做

4、定语从句

(1)定语从句的构成

n.(先行词)+引导词+句子

(2)定语从句的引导词

定语从句的引导词是按照先行词的种类分的类。一共把引导词分为五类

  • ①当先行词是人的时候引导词有:who、whom、whose、(that)用that不错但是正式文一般用来指物不指人,可以忽略
  • ②当先行词是物的时候引导词有:that、which、whose
  • ③当先行词是时间的时候引导词有:that、which、when
  • ④当先行词是地点的时候引导词有:that、which、where
  • ⑤当先行词是原因的时候引导词有:that、which、why

谁决定引导词的用法:①先行词:缩小范围能够得到上面的某种情况②引导词能够在从句中充当的成分。它们共同决定了定语从句引导词的用法

  • 同样都是that,在同位语从句和定语从句中扮演的角色不一样
  • 在同位语从句中扮演了引导词的角色,没有意思不做成分
  • 在定语从句中扮演了引导词的角色,还扮演代词的角色
  • 所以要好好记住简单句各个成分的角色
  • I will never forget the day ___ I met you.

    • 从that、which、when中选
    • 填when,因为that扮演代词,不缺代词能扮演的成分。when作为副词角色可以
  • I will never forget the day___we spent.

    • 从that、which、why中选
    • 填that。why不行代词不可以做宾语,
  • You had better have some reason___you are late.

    • 填why。同理

定语从句引导词的分类新标准:引导词可以按照引导词本身的词性分类

  • ①代词(在从句中充当主语或者宾语成分):that、which、who、whom

  • ②副词(在从句中不能充当任何主干成分):where、when、why

  • ③形容词(在从句中修饰离它最近的名词):whose

所以结合分类1和分类2,先看先行词选出分类1后看从句中缺少的成分。通过分类2区分,分类2只需要记住各自代表的成分,以后看分类1就能得到其代表的成分就可以了。

快速分析的结论:

  • 先行词人或物,从句不缺主谓宾,就是whose。
  • 先行词是时间,从句不缺主谓宾,就是when。
  • 先行词是地点,从句不缺主谓宾,就是where。
  • 先行词是原因,从句不缺主谓宾,就是why。
  • 从句缺主语或者宾语,that、which、who、whom中选

定语从句练习:

①夜莺用生命换来的玫瑰花被扔掉了

The rose that the nightingale exchange with his life was discarded.

②这些圆顶的建筑物看起来很漂亮

Buildings whose roofs are round look beautiful.

③成功属于有梦想的人已经被无数个事实所证明了

It has bean validated by numerous facts that glories belong to those who have dreams/with dreams/having dreams.

④穿自己的鞋不仅方便还确保一点:不用管别人的感受.

Wearing my own shoes not only is(not only 前后都行) convenient but also ensure a point that the feelings of others can be ignored.

⑤问题的关键是谁应该为道德的沦丧负责呢

The point of the issue seems who should be responsible for the decline of ethics.

⑥外表看起来邋遢的他其实内心很高尚.

He whose appearance looks indecent proves noble in his mind.

⑦那些全力以赴去实现梦想的人即使最终没有成功也不会感到遗憾这很重要.

It seems indispensable that those who spare no efforts to realize their dreams never fell pitiful although they fail to achieve glories.

⑧上课不集中精力而又想通过考试的同学往往会发现结果差强人意

Students who fail to concentrate in class but wish to pass the examinations smoothly tend to find that the consequence proves less impressive.

5、定语从句特殊用法练习

1、that做引导词时的省略写作文不要省略,任何省略都不正式。

that在引导定语从句的时候,如果在从句中充当的是宾语,that可以省略。注意是从句中充当宾语

I love the book (that)my mother brought for me.

如果见到两个名词或者代词直接放在一起中间没有被连词或者标点符号隔开,通常都是省略了that的定语从句

The potential evolution of today’s technology, and its social consequences, is dazzlingly complicated, and it’s perhaps best left to science fiction writers and futurologists to explore the many possibilities we can envisage.

2、区别限制和非限制性定语从句

限制性:前面名词的范围不明确,从句内容用来限定这个名词的范围甚至确定这个名词

非限定性:前面名词的范围明确,从句只是一种额外的补充说明罢了。

I love Amy,who is beautiful.我爱艾米,艾米很美丽。

I love Amy who is beautiful.我爱美丽的艾米。

I met your friend who is staying in Paris.

I met your mother ,who is staying in Paris.

在分析长难句的时候,非限制性定语从句(逗号隔开的)就相当于插入语可以完全不看(考试的答案也不会从非限制性定语从句得到),限制性定语从句一定要看。

Edison, whose inventions have been over 2,000, is a famous scientist.

爱迪生是一个著名的科学家,爱迪生的发明有两千多项。

3、as和which引导的特殊非限制性定语从句

which引导的非限制性定语从句可以修饰前面整个句子,as也可以但是which只能放在主句的后面,as则可前可后且as只能引导非限制性定语从句

He enjoy talking with young ladies,which drives me mad.

He enjoy talking with young ladies,as drives me mad.

As drives me mad,He enjoys talking with young ladies.

4、先行词和引导词之间有介词的情况

先行词和引导词之间有介词时:人不用who而用whom,物不用that只能用which写作文也不要这样写,没事找事。

马云是一个我们应该学习的人

He is the man ___ we should learn from. 填who whom都行.

He is the man from ___ we should learn .只能填whom.

I will never forget the day __ I met you. 填when

I will never forget the day on __ I met you. 填which

5、区别 the same….as; the same..that引导的定语从句

as像,that是根据语境区分

He is the same man as I love .他就我爱的男人

He is the same man that I love.他就我爱的男人

6、定语从句中引导词which和that的区别

that的词义是“那个”,暗指单个对象。

which的词义是“那一个”,暗指多个对象中的一个。

6、区分定语从句和同位语从句

I have a dream that sounds funny.(定语从句)

I have a dream that I will become a rich lady.(同位语从句)

相同点:

  • ①都是先行词+引导词+句子

不同点:解释和修饰

  • ①看从句本身的意思,定语从句是对前面名词的修饰,而同位语从句是对前面名词意思的解释
  • ②看引导词that在从句中是否充当了成分,如果充当了成分就是定语从句,如果没有充当成分就是同位语从句
  • ③定语从句的先行词可以是所有的名词,同位语从句的先行词只能是抽象名词
  • ④定语从句的引导词总共有八个,而同位语从句的引导词一般都是that

实际上除了翻译和写作没必要区别。

7、定语从句的至难点—寻找先行词

The words used by the speaker may stir up unfavorable reactions in the listener( )interfere with his comprehension; hence, the transmission-reception system breaks down.

A. who B.as C. which D. what

  • hence因此
  • 先行词是reactions
  • 说话者使用的话语可能会引起干扰听者理解力的不良反应, 因此,收发系统出现故障。

①When someone abandons you, he is the one who should get loss ,because for him, he loses someone who loves him but for you, you lose someone who does not love you.

  • ①定语从句的先行词是它前面最近的那个名词

②For workers it can mean an end to the security, benefits and sense of importance that came from being a loyal employee.

  • 先行词:the security, benefits and sense of importance

  • ②定语从句的先行词是它前面并列的几个名词

③The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse languages could be.

  • take root in 扎根

  • 先行词:that the structure of language had some connection with the process of thought

  • ③定语从句的先行词是它前面的一个从句

④My husband enjoy talking with other young ladies, which really gets me go mad

  • 先行词:My husband enjoy talking with other young ladies,

  • ④定语从句的先行词是它前面的一个句子

⑤As a linguist, he acknowledges that all varieties of human language, including non-standards like Black English,can be powerfully expressive — there exists no language or dialect in the world that cannot convey complex ideas.

  • linguist语言学家

  • dialect 方言

  • convey 传达

  • 先行词:language or dialect

  • ⑤定语从句的先行词和引导词被隔开了

必须读懂句子才能明白修饰的是哪个!!!所以多记单词,多分析!

8、定语从句的考点分析

(1)写作

①名词都可以有意识的加个定语,拉长句子

Pets (which look cute as well as healthy) can reduce loneliness (of senior citizens) (without any children)(who can take care of them.)

Reading books (which keep beneficial to our physical and mental health) can add knowledge (of all children and adults)

(2)英汉差异对比

1、汉语:意合 英语:形合

  • 句子结构上:中文尝尝省略主语人们通过语境意思判断主语,而英语不行
  • 逻辑关系词的使用上:中文不喜欢使用逻辑关系词而是通过语义判断,英语上有逻辑关系则基本上都必须加逻辑关系词

2、汉语:主动 英语:被动

例:汉:在过去几十年里,政府采取了各种措施预防灾害的发生。

​ 翻译成英:在过去几十年里,各种措施被政府采取了去预防灾害的发生。

3、汉语:多短句 英语:多长句

*启示:英语长难句分析,在阅读中可心中翻译成多个短句。翻译中中文的多个短句可以合成一个长句。 *

合并方式:

  • ①非谓语动词
    • 注:主语不一致则写成独立主格。
  • ②并列句
  • ③从句

WuZhen is a water town in zhejiang province. It locates near the river from Beijing to Hangzhou.(京杭大运河不会表示就这样写)

乌镇是浙江的一个水镇。它位于京杭大运河。

WuZhen locating near the river from Beijing to Hangzhou is a water town in zhejiang province.

WuZhen is a water town in zhejiang province and locates near the river from Beijing to Hangzhou.

WuZhen which locates near the river from Beijing to Hangzhou is a water town in zhejiang province.

(3)长难句分析

目的:能够找到一句话当中的定语成分并且把它们翻译出来

找定语的关键就是找名词,只要定语后又一堆话,只要不是动词就暂定为修饰这个名词的定语成分(还有可能是状语),定语从名词后开始到主句的谓语动词结束,如过定语在主句的谓语后的话,定语一般到句末结束。如果定语后有连词的话定语不再是到句末结束而是到连词之前结束。

一个大定语通常会有多个小定语

Creating a ”European identity“ (that respects the different cultures and traditions which go to make up the connecting fabric of the Old Continent) is no easy task and demands a strategic choice.

  • identity 身份
  • demand需求
  • make up 构成
  • 建立一种尊重不同文化和传统以构成旧大陆联系结构的“欧洲身份”并非易事,需要战略选择。

In Europe, as elsewhere, multi-media groups have been increasingly successful groups (which bring together television,radio, newspapers, magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another).

  • one another彼此
  • 在欧洲,与其他地方一样,多媒体团体已成为越来越成功的团体,它们将相互联系的电视,广播,报纸,杂志和出版社聚集在一起。

Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating.

  • reasonable合理的
  • advance n进步

In short, a leader of the new school contends, “the scientific revolution”, as we call it, was largely the improvement and invention and use( of a series of instruments that expanded the reach of science in innumerable directions.)

  • 初二语法:直接引语:双括号引起来,间接引语:宾语从句
    • 直接引语:直接引用别人的原话叫做直接引语,直接引语通常置于引号内(“引用原话”)。
    • 间接引语用自己的话转述别人的意思,或引用自己说过的话, 都叫做间接引语。间接引语多数用宾语从句来表达。
  • as we call it(插入语)
  • 插入语要么是同位语、要么是状语,偶尔是定语。
  • contend v角逐、竞争,是动词
  • instrument仪器
  • innumerable 无数的
  • reach n 范围

Astrophysicists working with ground-based detectors at the South pole and balloon-borne instruments are closing in on such structures, and may report their findings soon.

  • Astrophysicist天体物理学家

  • detector探测器

  • ground-based地基、路基

  • borne v承担 bear的过去分词

  • balloon-borne气球携带,球载

  • close in 逼近

使用南极的地基探测器和球载仪器的天体物理学家们正在研究这些结构,并且很快将会发表它们的发现。

与南极地面探测器和气球运载工具合作的天体物理学家正在这种结构附近工作,并可能很快报告其发现。

After six months of arguing and final 16hours of hot parliamentary debates Australia’s northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die.

  • parliamentary 议会
  • Territory 领土
  • incurably 难以治愈
  • 经过六个月的辩论和最后16个小时的议会激烈辩论,澳大利亚北部地区成为世界上第一个允许医生夺走希望死于不治之症的患者的生命的法律机构。

Whether to use tests, other kinds of information, or both in a particular situation depends, therefore, upon the evidence from experience concerning comparative validity and upon such factors as costs and availability.

  • comparative 相对的
  • validity 有效性
  • factor 因素
  • 因此,在特定情况下是否使用测试,其他类型的信息,或两者都使用,取决于经验中有关比较有效性的证据以及成本和可用性等因素。
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